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We’ve found that adding adaptive noise to the parameters of reinforcement learning algorithms frequently boosts performance. This exploration method is simple to implement and very rarely decreases performance, so it’s worth trying on any problem.

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Parameter noise helps algorithms more efficiently explore the range of actions available to solve an environment. After 216 episodes of training without parameter noise will frequently develop inefficient running behaviors, whereas policies trained with parameter noise often develop a high-scoring gallop.

Parameter noise lets us teach agents tasks much more rapidly than with other approaches. After learning for 20 episodes on the HalfCheetah Gym environment (shown above), the policy achieves a score of around 3,000, whereas a policy trained with traditional action noise only achieves around 1,500.

Parameter noise adds adaptive noise to the parameters of the neural network policy, rather than to its action space. Traditional RL uses action space noise to change the likelihoods associated with each action the agent might take from one moment to the next. Parameter space noise injects randomness directly into the parameters of the agent, altering the types of decisions it makes such that they always fully depend on what the agent currently senses. The technique is a middle ground between evolution strategies (where you manipulate the parameters of your policy but don’t influence the actions a policy takes as it explores the environment during each rollout) and deep reinforcement learning approaches like , , and DDPG (where you don’t touch the parameters, but add noise to the action space of the policy).

Action space noise (left), compared to parameter space noise (right)

Parameter noise helps algorithms explore their environments more effectively, leading to higher scores and more elegant behaviors. We think this is because adding noise in a deliberate manner to the parameters of the policy makes an agent’s exploration consistent across different timesteps, whereas adding noise to the action space leads to more unpredictable exploration which isn’t correlated to anything unique to the agent’s parameters.

People have previously tried applying parameter noise to policy gradients. We’ve extended this by showing that the technique works on policies based on deep neural networks and that it can be applied to both on- and off-policy algorithms.

When conducting this research we ran into three problems:

We use layer normalization to deal with the first problem, which ensures that the output of a perturbed layer (which will be the input to the next one) is still within a similar distribution.

We tackle the second and third problem by introducing an adaptive scheme to adjust the size of the parameter space perturbations. This adjustment works by measuring the effect of the perturbation on action space and whether the action space noise level is larger or smaller than a defined target. This trick allows us to push the problem of choosing noise scale into action space, which is more interpretable than parameter space.

Intuitively, it feels a bit like the two languages have a similar ‘shape’ and that by forcing them to line up at different points, they overlap and other points get pulled into the right positions.

t-SNE visualization of the bilingual word embedding. Green is Chinese, Yellow is English. ( Socher (2013a) )

In bilingual word embeddings, we learn a shared representation for two very similar kinds of data. But we can also learn to embed very different kinds of data in the same space.

Recently, deep learning has begun exploring models that embed images and words in a single representation. 5

The basic idea is that one classifies images by outputting a vector in a word embedding. Images of dogs are mapped near the “dog” word vector. Images of horses are mapped near the “horse” vector. Images of automobiles near the “automobile” vector. And so on.

The interesting part is what happens when you test the model on new classes of images. For example, if the model wasn’t trained to classify cats – that is, to map them near the “cat” vector – what happens when we try to classify images of cats?

( Socher (2013b) )

It turns out that the network is able to handle these new classes of images quite reasonably. Images of cats aren’t mapped to random points in the word embedding space. Instead, they tend to be mapped to the general vicinity of the “dog” vector, and, in fact, close to the “cat” vector. Similarly, the truck images end up relatively close to the “truck” vector, which is near the related “automobile” vector.

( Socher (2013b) )

This was done by members of the Stanford group with only 8 known classes (and 2 unknown classes). The results are already quite impressive. But with so few known classes, there are very few points to interpolate the relationship between images and semantic space off of.

The Google group did a much larger version – instead of 8 categories, they used 1,000 – around the same time ( Buy Sale Online Discounts Womens Tessa Boyfriend Jeans Mavi Outlet Get Authentic Extremely Browse Cheap Online rBdWRq
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). Both are based on a very powerful image classification model (from Krizehvsky et al. (2012) ), but embed images into the word embedding space in different ways.

The results are impressive. While they may not get images of unknown classes to the precise vector representing that class, they are able to get to the right neighborhood. So, if you ask it to classify images of unknown classes and the classes are fairly different, it can distinguish between the different classes.

Even though I’ve never seen a Aesculapian snake or an Armadillo before, if you show me a picture of one and a picture of the other, I can tell you which is which because I have a general idea of what sort of animal is associated with each word. These networks can accomplish the same thing.

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